Patellar luxation is a dislocation of the patella (kneecap). The patella may dislocate toward the inside (medial) or outside (lateral) of the leg or may move in both directions. It can result from an injury or congenital abnormalities. The symptoms of a luxating patella vary depending on the severity and duration of the luxation. In mild cases the patient may show little or no clinical signs and only minimal treatment is required. Severe cases require surgical reconstruction of the knee joint. This involves surgical stabilization of the patella through a combination of the following techniques:
- Deepening the trochlear groove
- Tibial crest transposition
- A lateral retinacular stitch
- Stabilization sutures
These techniques physically alter the anatomical structure of the knee joint and enables the patella to remain in its proper position alleviating any pain caused by the luxation. In some cases, surgery may be required for only one leg, but can also affect both limbs depending on the individual.